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Requirements are now clearly stated and calculation procedures appear sequentially. All informative background information has been moved to informative appendices.
Documentation requirements to show that a design complies with Standard 55 are contained in Section 6, and a sample compliance form is provided in Appendix K.
Both of these sections are clarified and streamlined for use by owners and third-party rating systems. Looking for previous revisions of this standard?
Radiant temperature asymmetry between ceiling and floor, and air and walls must be limited to reduce discomfort.
To reduce draft risk at temperatures below When occupants do not have control over the cyclical variation or drifts in indoor environmental conditions, the conditions within this section must be met.
Operative temperatures may not fluctuate more than 1. For this model the standard provides a graph of acceptable indoor temperature limits at prevailing mean outdoor temperatures a mean of the daily mean outdoor temperatures of the previous 7—30 days.
An accompanying table lists provisions for higher operative temperatures at air speeds above 0. The graph is valid for prevailing mean temperatures between 10— This section of the standard is applicable for the design of buildings.
All of the building systems must be designed to maintain the occupied spaces at the indoor conditions specified by one of the described evaluation methods at design conditions.
The systems must be able to maintain these conditions within the expected range of indoor and outdoor operating conditions.
To demonstrate compliance the following must be documented, where applicable. Sample documentation is provided in Informative Appendix J.
Generally, the evaluation of comfort in existing buildings can be performed from two perspectives: from occupant satisfaction survey and physical environmental measurements.
Indoor thermal comfort can be determined from the responses of the occupant survey. The survey shall be distributed to the entire occupancy or representative part of the occupancy.
If that number is between 20 and 45, the minimum number of responses is When the number is under 20, at least 16 must reply for the survey to make the survey representative.
For satisfaction surveys, the thermal satisfaction scale shall end with choices: "very satisfied" and "very dissatisfied", and, also, the occupants should be allowed to explain their dissatisfaction by answering an open-ended question.
As for point-in-time surveys, the survey should be solicited during the time of occupancy, and the satisfaction scale ought to be continuous.
There should be at least seven points on the scale ending with "very acceptable" and "very unacceptable. For mechanically conditioned spaces, the PMV-based comfort zone has to be determined, which includes measuring and recording the metabolic activity and clothing insulation.
The comfort zone boundaries must be adjusted to the air movements, and the zone conditions should be adjusted to avoid local thermal discomfort.
For occupant-controlled naturally conditioned space, the adaptive model shall be used to determine the thermal comfort boundaries.
For such spaces, the indoor and outdoor air temperature and mean radiant temperature and the air speed need to be measured.
The measurement locations should be where the occupants are expected to spend time in. If there are multiple such locations, the measurement can be performed at a representative location.
For seating occupants, the air temperature and air speed measurements shall be taken at heights of 0. The heights need to be adjusted for standing persons.
The standard suggests that the time of measurements should last two or more hours long, and it should also be a representative time of the year for this specific building.
Measuring time step should be no more than five minutes for air temperature, mean radiant temperature, and humidity, and no more than three minutes for the air speed.
In order to achieve acceptable results, the standard also suggests the minimum equipment accuracy based the current industry standard. When extracting environmental data from the Building Administration System, one should evaluate the location, height, and time step of the sensors based on the previous suggestion.
To evaluate the probability of satisfaction from satisfaction surveys, the standard suggests dividing the number of the votes falling between "just satisfied" and "very satisfied" by the total number of votes in that questions.
The answers of open-ended questions from "very dissatisfied" occupants should be documented for later analysis. One has to keep in mind that the results from point-in-time surveys are only effective during the time when the surveys were solicited.
The measured results should be evaluated against the adjusted comfort zone for the specific building. There are two cases when evaluating thermal comfort: at a specific time or over a period of time.
For a mechanically conditioned space at an instance in time, the PMV and SET model shall be used to establish the comfort zone, and the local thermal discomfort shall be evaluated against the limit posed this standard as well.
With a few simple modifications to the original ventilation system design, the overall thermal comfort was improved dramatically.
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